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Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 A.D. as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 A.D. with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 A.D. referendum. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 A.D. ended under UN auspices in December 2000 A.D.. Eritrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation that is monitoring a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone on the border with Ethiopia. An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings in 2002 A.D.. However, both parties have been unable to reach agreement on implementing the decision. Afar, Arabic, Tigre, Kunama, and Tigrinya are spoken.